Analyzing Magnetic Flow Meters for Blood Flow Measurement
Brianne Costa November 24, 2017
Magnetic flow meters are a noninvasive option for measuring blood flow. However, when patients move, displaced blood vessels can affect the sensitivity of the flow meter. Researchers from ABB Corporate Research used multiphysics modeling to study how the displacement of blood vessels in a moving patient impacts the performance of a magnetic flow meter.
An Easy Way to Measure Blood Flow
To measure blood flow in a painless and noninvasive way for patients, medical professionals can use magnetic flow meters, which rely on electromotive force (EMF). In a flow meter, external coils generate a magnetic field and noncontact electrodes measure the induced EMF. When a patient moves during the measurement process (even by merely taking a breath), blood vessels can move, which affects the flow meter’s sensitivity. This phenomenon is an important point of analysis in cardiac and thoracic medicine.
Magnetic flow meters, which rely on coils and electrodes, are a noninvasive way to measure flow in a patient’s blood vessels.
Researchers from ABB Corporate Research in India built a multiphysics model of this process that includes the effects of fluid-structure interaction (FSI) and electromagnetics. Their aim was to understand how blood vessel movement influences flow meter sensitivity by comparing the meter’s performance when blood vessels are displaced versus in their normal positions.
Simulating a Magnetic Flow Meter in COMSOL Multiphysics®
The research team modeled a blood vessel as a pipe, but with the appropriate biological material properties. They coupled multiple physical effects via built-in physics interfaces in the COMSOL Multiphysics® software. The Laminar Flow interface was used to model the blood flow through the vessel. To account for the magnetic field generated by the coils, as well as the EMF induced by the blood flow and magnetic field, they used the Magnetic and Electric Fields interface.
A schematic of the magnetic flow meter model. Image by S. Dasgupta, K. Ravikumar, P. Nenninger, and F. Gotthardt and taken from their COMSOL Conference 2016 Bangalore paper.
The researchers also used the Structural Mechanics Module, an add-on product to COMSOL Multiphysics, to model the vessel displacement during patient movement. They coupled this analysis with the CFD Module to account for FSI, including how the vessel displacement affects blood flow and how the fluid pressure affects the blood vessel.
This model was used to analyze the sensitivity of the magnetic flow meter when blood vessels are displaced and when they are in a normal position.
Comparing the Simulation Results
The researchers compared the results for a blood vessel in a normal position and displaced by 5 cm toward the upper coil. The simulation results show contour plots of the velocity and magnetic flux density across the pipe (i.e., blood vessel) cross section. Other results show the induced electric potential from the flow and magnetic field interface and the potential distribution across the pipe diameter.
The velocity (top left) and magnetic flux density (bottom left) across the pipe as well as the induced electric potential of the cross section (top right) and length (bottom right) of the pipe. Images by S. Dasgupta et al. and taken from their COMSOL Conference 2016 Bangalore paper.
The plots indicate an increase in the sensitivity of the flow meter between the nondisplaced and displaced blood vessels. The team determined that the increase is not due to velocity, since the velocity profiles are the same for both scenarios. Instead, the reason for the increase is that the displaced vessel shifted to a higher magnetic field zone, and the magnetic flux density in the vessel increased as it moved toward the coil.
Next Steps for Flow Meter Research
The researchers from ABB concluded through their simulation results that blood vessel displacement is a potential issue for medical uses of magnetic flow meters. To address the concerns, they theorized that a patient’s body movement can be restricted during these procedures or a breath-synchronous magnetic field can be generated to compensate for the sensitivity changes.
While these simulations proved useful for the medical field, further studies can account for more real-world conditions, such as pulsatile blood flow as well as variations in vessel properties and body locations.
For the team, this research confirmed that COMSOL Multiphysics can be used to analyze how different phenomena — including fluid flow, structural mechanics, and electromagnetics — interact in a complex application.
Check out the full paper from the COMSOL Conference 2016 Bangalore (it won a Best Paper award!): “Measurement of Blood Flowrate in Large Blood Vessels Using Magnetic Flowmeter“